Let’s now quickly review some basic concepts of WLANs that most of you may already be aware of. In WLANs, communication happens over frames. A frame would have the following header structure:
The Frame Control field itself has a more complex structure:
The Type field defines three types of WLAN frame:
1. Management frames: Management frames are responsible for maintaining communication between access points and wireless clients. Management frames can have the following subtypes:
- Association request
- Association response
- Reassociation request
- Reassociation response
- Probe request
- Probe response
2. Control frames: Control frames are responsible for ensuring a proper exchange of data between access points and wireless clients. Control frames can have the following subtypes:
- Request to Send (RTS)
- Clear to Send (CTS)
- Acknowledgement (ACK)
3. Data frames: Data frames carry the actual data that is sent on the wireless network. There are no subtypes for data frames.
In Spark, a DataFrame is a distributed collection of data organized into named columns. It is conceptually equivalent to a table in a relational database or a data frame in R/Python, but with richer optimizations under the hood. DataFrames can be constructed from a wide array of sources such as: structured data files, tables in Hive, external databases, or existing RDDs.
We will discuss the security implications of each of these frames when we discuss different attacks in later articles.
Source : Penetration Testing with Kali Linux